What You Need To Know About Packaging - Creative World

What You Need To Know About Packaging

Packaging means the wrapping or bottling of products to make them safe from damages during transportation and storage. It keeps a product safe and marketable and helps in identifying, describing, and promoting the product.

“Packing is the preparation of product or commodity for proper storage and/or transportation. It may entail blocking, bracing, cushioning, marking, sealing, strapping, weather proofing, wrapping, etc.”

Business Dictionary.
  • 1. Introduction of Packaging 2. Definitions of Packaging 3. Meaning 4. Objectives 5. Important Aspects 6. Need 7. Functions 8. Qualities

  • 9. Kinds 10. Classification 11. Types 12. Test to Check Packaging 13. Kinds of Materials Used 14. Packaging Cost 15. Considerations for Packaging Decision 16. Packaging Policies and Strategies.

Everything You Need To Know About Packaging.

  • Introduction of Packaging
  • Definitions of Packaging
  • Meaning of Packaging
  • Objectives of Packing and Packaging
  • Important Aspects of Packaging
  • Need of Packaging
  • Functions of Packaging
  • Qualities of Good Packaging
  • Kinds of Packaging
  • Classification of Packaging
  • Types of Packages
  • Test to Check the Method of Packaging
  • Kinds of Materials Used for Packaging
  • Packaging Cost
  • Considerations for Packaging Decision
  • Packaging Policies and Strategies

What is Packaging – Introduction

The history of packaging dates back to the year 1035, when a Persian traveller, visiting markets in Cairo, noted that vegetables, spices and hardware were wrapped in paper for the customers after they were sold. With the passage of time, attempts were made to use the natural materials available, such as, Baskets of reeds, wooden boxes, pottery vases, woven bags etc. However, the use of card board’s paperboard cartons was first done in the 19th century.

The Michigan State University was the first to offer a degree course in “Packaging Engineering” Since then, there has been no looking back. The packaging industry boomed as more than the content, it is the ”packaging” which attracts the attention of the buyer.

There was a revolution in Packaging in the early 20th century due to several modes of packaging designed such as Bakelite closures on bottles, transparent cellophane overwraps and panels on cartons, which increased processing efficiency and improved food safety. As additional materials such as aluminium and several types of plastic were developed, they were incorporated into packages to improve performance and functionality.

Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages.

In short, Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use. Packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells, in many countries it is fully integrated into government, business, and institutional, industrial, and personal use.

Packing means packing or wrapping goods to look attractive as well as secure safety i.e.,
  • holding together the contents
  • protecting product while passing through distribution channels.
Again packaging refers to

“all the activities involved in designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product”


Recently, term packaging is being used interchangeably to mean both ‘packing’ proper as well as ‘packaging’. Traditionally, ‘packaging’ referred to retail or consumer container and ‘packing’ to transport container. Consumer packaging has significant marketing implications while transport containers are more important from logistics standpoint.

materials used for packaging:

  • Wood
  • Metals
  • Plastics
  • Paper
  • Glass
  • Polyester

New technology allows for 360 degree shrink-wrapped labels to surround containers with bright graphics and more on-pack information, replacing paper labels glued on to cans and bottles.

What is Packaging – Definitions

Packaging means the wrapping or bottling of products to make them safe from damages during transportation and storage. It keeps a product safe and marketable and helps in identifying, describing, and promoting the product.

Different kinds of products need different kinds of packaging, for example, liquid products are packed in barrels and bottles; whereas, solid products are wrapped. The organizations use special containers for fragile products, such as glassware.

The terms packing and packaging are used synonymously but there is a certain amount of difference between the two. Packaging means covering the product itself so that it is protected from damage, leakage, dust, pollution, contamination etc. Examples – Chocolates packaged in thin sheet, milk packaged in sachets etc.

Packing means putting all the packages in a big box, container, chest, crate etc. for the purposes of storage, transportation, handling etc. Moreover the functions of packing and packaging, in the present context have gone beyond the basic expectations of protection of the product.

“Packing is the preparation of product or commodity for proper storage and/or transportation. It may entail blocking, bracing, cushioning, marking, sealing, strapping, weather proofing, wrapping, etc.”

Business Dictionary

“Packing is the activity of putting your possessions into bags, cases, or boxes so that you can take or send them somewhere.”

MacMillan Dictionary

“Packaging refers to the processes (such as cleaning, drying, and preserving) and materials (such as glass, metal, paper or paperboard, plastic) employed to contain, handle, protect, and/or transport an article. Role of packaging is broadening and may include functions such as to attract attention, assist in promotion, provide machine identification (barcodes, etc.), impart essential or additional information, and help in utilization.”

Business Dictionary

“Packaging is the wrapping material around a consumer item that serves to contain, identify, describe, protect, display, promote and otherwise make the product marketable and keep it clean.”


“Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use.”


Until recently packing was being considered as a minor element in the marketing mix of a product. But now it has become an integral part of the product itself. Packages act as the major means-of creating product preference. It is a vehicle by which the brand of a product is carried through the consumer. It is a powerful selling tool. Hence, it has become a highly important area of managerial decisions.

Packing and Packaging:

Packing is the process of covering, wrapping or crating goods into a package. This is done for the purpose of delivering the product.

Packaging involves designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product. The potentialities of packaging, essentially in the field of demand creation, have been widely accepted now. If is often remarked as a silent salesman. Packaging decision may affect production, distribution, research and development, sales, accounting, and finance.

Packaging is an effective selling tool. For example, Gillette Company introduced a package for keeping blades. This packaging has come to be known as – “razor blade dispenser”. This dispensing packaging not only includes space for new blades, which could easily be ejected, but contained space at the bottom of the dispenser in which old and useless blades could be kept.

What is Packaging – Meaning

Packaging is the general group of activities which concentrate in formulating the design of a package, and producing an appropriate and attractive container or wrapper for the product. Packing refers to the wrapping and crating of goods before they are transported or stored.

It is a physical action which provides a handling convenience, e.g., rice, cotton, wheat or any other agricultural produce. It is necessary to prevent flowing out of liquids and is essential to maintain freshness and quality. It can prevent the danger of adulteration.

Packaging is the subdivision of the packing function of marketing. It involves more than simply placing products in containers or covering them with wrappers. Philip Kotler defines packaging as an activity which is concerned with protection, economy, convenience, and promotional considerations.

Packaging obviously is closely related to labelling and branding because the label often appears on the package and the brand is typically on the label. A package defines the space in which a product is contained.

The package contents may be pre-measured, pre-weighted, pre-stored, pre-assembled, and then placed in a specially designed wrapper, box, carton, can, crate, bottle, jar, tube, barrel, or drum for convenient distribution.

Important Packaging

Packing and packaging are basically done to protect the product. During the present days however these two functions have assumed several additional objectives in addition to protection.

The following are the objectives of packing and packaging:
1. To Provide Physical Protection:

Packaging of objects insures that they are protected against vibration, temperature, shock, compression, deterioration in quality etc. Packing and packaging also protect the products against theft, leakage, pilferage, breakage, dust, moisture, bright light etc.

2. To Enable Marketing:

Packing and packaging play an important role in marketing. Good packing and packaging along with attractive labelling are used by sellers to promote the products to potential buyers. The shape, size, colour, appearance etc. are designed to attract the attention of potential buyers.

3. To Convey Message:

There is so much of information about the product that a manufacturer would like to convey to the users of the product. Information relating to the raw materials used, the type of manufacturing process, usage instructions, use by date etc. are all very important and should be conveyed to the users. Manufacturers print such information on the packages.

4. To Provide Convenience:

Packing and packaging also add to the convenience in handling, display, opening, distribution, transportation, storage, sale, use, reuse and disposal. Packages with easy to carry handles, soft squeezed tubes, metallic containers, conveniently placed nozzles etc. are all examples of this.

5. To Provide Containment or Agglomeration:

Small objects are typically put together in one package for reasons of efficiency and economy. For example, a single bag of 1000 marbles requires less physical handling than 1000 single marbles. Liquids, powders, granular materials etc. need containment.

6. To Provide Portion Control:

In the medicinal and pharmaceutical field, the precise amount of contents is needed to control usage. Medicine tablets are divided into packages that are of a more suitable size for individual use. It also helps in the control of inventory.

7. To Enable Product Identification:

Packing and packaging enable a product to have its own identity. This is done by designing a unique and distinct package through the effective use of colours, shapes, graphics etc. Such identification and distinction are very essential in the present situation of intense competition and product clutter.

8. To Enhance Profits:

Since consumers are willing to pay a higher price for packaged goods, there will be higher profit realization. Moreover packaged goods reduce the cost of handling, transportation, distribution etc. and also cut down wastage and thereby increase profits.

9. To Enable Self-Service Sales:

The present trend in retailing is effective display and self-service sales. Products require effective packing for self-service sales.

10. To Enhance Brand Image:

Attractive packing and packaging in a consistent manner over a long time enhances the brand image of the product.

Important Aspects Of Packaging

In developing the marketing plan for a product, in international market, packaging is an important element. Packaging should be viewed from its promotional and protectional aspects.

  • Promotional Aspect of Packaging:

Packaging of a product plays an important role in promoting the product in the international markets. With the advent of self-service starts and super markets, the package of a product serves as a ‘silent sales man’. It is capable of performing many of the salesman’s tasks.

When there is no salesman to promote the product in the stores, the package as kept on the shelf must attract the attention of the consumer, describe the product’s and producer’s features, project the confidence and make a favorable overall impression. Good packaging thus leads to improved consumer acceptance because it carries and projects various qualities of the product as well as the manufacturer.

Good packaging must reinforce the integrated marketing concept. Brand names occupy a dominant role in marketing which is popularised through advertisement. But the reminding of brand names and making brands acceptable to customers are achieved through proper packaging.

Packaging must, therefore, support and reinforce the brand identity the company is trying to build. In this way, good packaging creates demand for the product and brings large-scale production and distribution gains.

  • Protectional Aspect of Packaging:

The second important aspect of packaging is its protectional aspect which it provides to the product, consumer packaging intends to offer better convenience to consumers in use and in storage.


  • It protects the product from:
  1. Pilferage and adulteration – It cannot be adulterated with any other product unless repacked.
  2. Product loss – Oil, petroleum products etc. are lost if remain exposed.
  3. Contamination by dirt or dust, e.g., clothing, food products.
  4. Moisture gain or loss, e.g., cement or sugar,
  5. Chemical change.
  6. Insect attack, e.g., moth in woolen garments.

It has been estimated that good packaging increases the unit value realization approximately three times if we are able to develop and bring about retail packs for a large number of exportable items. It also increases the popularity of the product.

  • Transport Packaging Protection during Transit:

The basic function of transport packaging in international marketing is to ensure that the goods will reach safely in the hands of consumers. To ensure the goods is no excuse for not bothering for damages or pilferage in transit. Good packaging is essential irrespective of the fact whether the goods are insured or not.

Improvements in packaging are needed to avoid transit losses due to environmental hazards, i.e., climate, moisture, etc. and to achieve greater speed in handling and deliveries. The materials used in packaging should be such that protect the goods from the ill-effects of moisture, gas, light, air, etc. so that goods may preserve its attributes, shape, weight, stability, fragility, rigidity, surface finish and durability etc. Thus packaging plays an important role in the storage, preservation, protection and distribution.

The type of packaging which ensures that the goods will be delivered in a good condition to the foreign buyer will vary depending upon the various factors such as-


  1. The product,
  2. The poor of destination,
  3. The length of the journey,
  4. The climate of the place of delivery and place of destination,
  5. Eat and measure to which the goods are subjected during the voyage,
  6. The loss of the importing and exporting countries regarding packaging of goods,
  7. Mode of handling the goods etc.

In many cases, the packaging conditions are specified in the contract itself and therefore the exporter should not be bothered about. He must adhere to the conditions laid down in the contract. Even when the importer has not laid down any condition as to packaging, it is the prime duty of the export to provide transport packaging of the type which may ensure the safe arrival of the shipment in merchandise condition and must adhere to the above factors.

  • Legal Provisions:

The mandatory provisions as to packaging of the goods imported also have important bearing on the packaging of goods. Most developed countries have enacted comprehensive legislation on the type of containers, both bulk and consumer especially for food items. For example, exports of food products to the USA must conform in all respects to the provisions of the U.S. Foods and Drugs Act.

Similarly, Australia bans the imports of any packing material containing vegetable matter in order to check insect contamination of the country’s wood resources large consignments of Indian goods were repacked at the Australian Port of entry at the exporters’ cost. In 1978, the USA directed that all Indian export consignments in wooden packing’s be first fumigated before they are unloaded at U.S. ports.

The laws of the importing countries may also specify the labelling requirements to be shown on the packages imported. However, these rules may vary from country to country.


  • These rules require the following information to be shown in the label:
  1. Name and address of the manufacturer/importer;
  2. Clear description of the product’s composition;
  3. Net weight or volumetric measurement;
  4. Duration of the product’s life;
  5. Storage conditions required after the package has been opened;
  6. Manufacturer’s instructions for use or preparation, if any. Factors to be considered for Package Designing.

What is Packaging – Need

1. Important Element of Marketing Plan:

Packaging is an important element in formulating marketing plan for a product.


2. Silent Salesman:

With the advent of self-service stores and super markets, package has to perform the function of a silent salesman besides traditional function of protecting the product. This means that in the absence of a salesman to promote the product in a sales store, package as kept on the shelf captures the fancy of the customer.


3. Communication with Consumer:

Product package has an important promotional function. It establishes meaningful communication with the consumer.


4. Package Designing:

It is extremely important to know the special attributes of each target market and design the product package accordingly.


5. Convenience:

Consumer packaging offers better convenience and ease to consumer in handling and carrying their products.


6. Protection:

It protects the product from pilferage and adulteration.


7. Increased Value:

It has been estimated that unit value realization can rise approximately three times if able to develop and bring about retail packs for a large number of exportable items.


8. Other Aspects:

  • It helps increase sales.
  • It adds to use of a product.
  • It helps in storage.
  • It helps in product differentiation.
  • It helps promote a product.
  • It contributes to safety of a product from damage.
  •  It helps in branding and promoting brand loyalty.
  • It may cut marketing costs and thus enhance profit/ profitability of product.
  • It helps portability/transportability of product.
  • It helps publicity.

9. Recent Developments/Trends:

In recent years, producers have made changes in their packaging for a few reasons, viz.:


  • Maintain sales volume.
  •  Expand market by new packaging.
  • Use packaging as a means for advertising and sales promotion.


10. Use of Packaging Machines:

  • Integral Part – Packaging machines have now-a-days become an integral part of industries.
  • Health consciousness, urbanization and even changing habits are some of the factors that have led to growing use of such machines.
  • Food and Pharma sectors have contributed significantly in growing use of these machines.

Functions: Protection and Preservation, Containment, Communication, Convenience, Economy and Promotion Function


Packaging has a two-dimensional function. First, it must protect the product. Then it has an important promotional role.


Thus, the functions can be categorized into the following headings:



1. Protection and Preservation:


The basic function of packaging is to protect and preserve the contents during transit from the manufacturer to the ultimate consumer.


i. Most of the damage occurs in the handling process. The more frequently the products are handled in the distribution process, the greater is the need for protection. Damaged goods have to be replaced as they may cause loss and inconvenience to the seller as well as to the purchaser.


ii. Certain products, if exposed, may be lost. Powder, oil and petroleum products are examples.


iii. Pilferage.


iv. Contamination by dirt or dust, for example, clothing.


v. Moisture gain and loss, for example, cement.


vi. Chemical change, for example, metal corrosion.


vii. Insect attack, for example, moths in clothing.




2. Containment:


Most products must be contained before they can be moved from one place to another. To function successfully, the .package must contain the product. This containment function of packaging makes a huge contribution to protect the environment. A better packaging helps to maintain the quality of the product and reachability of the product in the consumer’s hand without spillages. It gives better image to the organization.



3. Communication:


A major function of packaging is the communication of the product. A package must communicate what it sells. When international trade is involved and different languages are spoken, the use of unambiguous and readily understood symbols on the distribution package is essential.


It helps in appropriate communication to the consumer about the product, how to use it and other utility information. Packaging protects the interests of consumers. Information includes quantity, price, inventory levels, lot number, distribution routes, size, and elapsed time since packaging, colour, merchandizing and premium data.



4. Convenience:


i. Properly packed goods require less space.


ii. Easy methods could be suggested to take goods out from a pack and keep the rest intact.



5. Economy:


Package provides various economies, both to the producers and the consumers.


i. Loss in quantity is prevented thereby avoiding the monetary loss also.


ii. Creates an opportunity to communicate with the customers.



6. Promotion Function:


i. Self-service – The package must be and capable of performing many of the sales tasks. It must attract attention, describe the products’ features, give consumer confidence and make a favourable overall impression.


ii. Consumer affluence – The prestige of a product is maintained with the help of proper packaging. Good packaging is capable of projecting various qualities of the product as well as that of the manufacturers.


iii. Integrated marketing concept – Brand names now occupy a dominant role in marketing. The brand names are popularized through advertisement but the reminding of brand names and making the brands acceptable to consumers are achieved through packaging.


iv. Innovational opportunity – Packaging is capable of bringing large-scale gains.


Packages also perform a large and increasing variety of other individual, functions.


Some of these functions are:


i. To assemble and arrange the contents in the desired form.


ii. To identify the contents, the brand and the maker. (Product differentiation is perfected through this function).


iii. To provide a suitable product mix including size, weights, prices, grades and packages.


iv. To facilitate retailer’s functions.


v. To facilitate transporting, storing and warehouse handling.


vi. To enable the display of contents.


vii. To encourage repurchase.


viii. To help in complying with legal requirements.


ix. To provide opportunity and space for advertising.


What is Packaging – 14 Essentials/Qualities of Good Packaging


1. Attractive Appearance – That is, attracts customers attraction, creates his interest in product and creates positive image of product.


2. Convenient for Storage and Display including storage in lesser space.


3. Safety of Goods, that is, security or protection of goods from damage, spoilage, breakage, insects, rodents etc.


4. Product Description be shown on Package.


5. Recognizable – Package must be recognizable.


6. Eye-Appeal of package.


7. Transport Economies – Packaging should allow economies in transport.


8. Uniformity and Consistency.


9. Convenience in Transport Handling e.g., provided with hooks, handles, grippers etc.


10. Able to withstand hazards of transport e.g., tilting, throwing, pulling, pushing, rolling etc.


11. Amenable to quick examination of contents; for example in case of export, import by customs authorities.


12. Easy to dispose off after opening of goods.

13. Proper and Adequate Marking.

14. Proper instructions like –

‘This side up’, ‘Fragile’


‘Handle with Care’


What is Packaging – Kinds of Packaging on the Basis of Nature


Kinds or methods of packaging will depend largely on the nature of the contents in terms of their value, physical composition and durability.

The length of the distribution channel, the amount of handling which the container receives, and variations in climatic conditions encountered between the points of manufacture and sales are also to be taken into account.


For example, products in liquid form require containers made of glass or similar materials. For fragile articles, wooden containers are used.


On the basis of nature, packaging is classified into the following:


i. Family packaging – A package of a particular manufacturer, packed in an identical manner is known as family packaging. The shape and colour, the materials used for packaging will be similar for all the products in such cases.


ii. Reuse packaging – Packages that could be used for some other purposes after the goods have been consumed is known as reuse packaging.

iii. Multiple packaging – It is the practice of placing several units in one container. This helps to introduce new products and increase sales.


iv. Transport packaging – The product entering into the trade needs to be packed well enough to protect against loss or damage during handling, transport and storage, for example, fiberboard, wooden crate, etc.


v. Consumer packaging – This packaging holds the required volume of the product for ultimate consumption and is more relevant in marketing, for example, beverages, tobacco, etc.


What is Packaging – Classification


While formulating packaging policies and strategies, it is important for marketers to develop a packaging concept around which these are to be formulated. A packaging concept is a description of product package and the functions it is supposed to perform in respect of that particular product. The conceptualisation of package involves determining package functions and developing an appropriate mix of these functions so as to attain product objective. For example, in case of Zodiac neckties and hand-kerchiefs package visibility was defined as the basic packaging concept and therefore, rigid plastic package was developed.


Classification of Packaging:


1. Family Packaging:


The product of a particular manu­facturer when packed in an identical way is known as family packaging. The shape, colour, size etc. of packaging will be similar for all his products. Family brands are made meaningful by using family packaging, also. In such cases packaging methods, material used for packaging the appearance etc. will be one and the same for all the products of a manufacturer.


2. Re-Use Packaging:


Packaging that could be used for some other purposes by the consumers after the packed goods have been consumed is known as re-use packaging. This aspect increases the sales value of the product considerably.


3. Multiple Packaging:


It is the practice of placing several units in one container. This helps to introduce new products and increase the sales.


The various aspects of packaging are now treated as a management activity.


The following are the problems encountered in packaging:


(a) Cost of packaging


(b) Appearance


(c) Kinds of designs


(d) Convenience


(e) Re-use purpose


IN spite of its various advantages, packaging has been subjected to criticism. One among them is that it adds cost. To some extent this complaint holds goods. It is true that packaging expenses definitely increase the price. But the benefits derived are sufficient to compensate the increase in cost. For example some medicines which we buy are to be consumed at once. Their preservation is very important. Only a good package can render this service. So long as the product is capable of absorbing the packaging cost proportionately this criticism cannot be accepted.


In considering some of the more sophisticated uses of packaging the protective aspects of packaging should not be disregarded.


Attention is therefore drawn to the following hazards against which packaging should provide a defense:


1. Insect Attack, e.g. months in clothing.


2. Mould, e.g. in canned foods, paints.


3. Flavor loss or change.


4. Chemical change, e.g. mental corrosion, coffee rancidity.


5. Moisture Gain and Loss – Many products have an optimum moisture content, e.g. cement, ceramic paints, frozen foods.


6. Contamination by Dust or Dirt – Clothing, food and fine machinery are obvious examples of products liable to damage in this way.


7. Pilferage – Loss through pilferage can be quite high-especially if there are many handling points.


8. Product Loss – Liquids and powders are highly susceptible to loss, e.g. powder leakage, liquid evaporation.


9. Damage by Mechanical Handling – Most damage occurs in the handling process and, the more frequently product are handled in the distribution process, the greater is the need for protection. One of the advantages of the liner rain and other container transport development is that they will result in less damage through handling. Damaged goods have to be replaced and are likely to cause loss and inconvenience to seller and purchases. Often slightly damaged products may not be returned, but may inhibit repeat purchase.


What is Packaging – 4 Important Types (With Package Forms and Material Used)



1. Consumer Package:


It holds the required volume of a product for ultimate consumption and is within the means of a buying household. In other words, the consumer has the option to purchase the pack size which he considers adequate for the consumption of his family over a length of time and which does not involve extra investment during that period.



2. Bulk Package:


It is the opposite of consumer package. It is either for the industrial consumer’s use or for loose dispensing. The bulk package also often requires an outside package in which it is transported and which is sometimes referred to as a transit package or an outer container.



3. Industrial Package:


This packaging provides protection to the spare parts, semi-finished and finished products during each phase of the manufacturing process, and also during transportation and storage.



4. Dual use Package:


It has a secondary usefulness of a package after its original contents have been used. For example, plastic bottles, sacks in which groceries are packed, etc.


Package Forms and Materials Used:


Packages are often selected on prima facie grounds of cost, common industrial practices, type of the product, quality of product, conditions of display, likely consumer appeal.


Packages may be in the form of tin plate cans, cardboard containers, polythene bags, paper or cloth or gunny bags, wooden boxes, teak chests, squeeze bottles, collapsible tubes, aerosol cans, aluminium foils, clear film wrappings, plastic container, etc. Colour may be used to identify sizes, models, flavours and qualities.


The true economy of packaging lies in the total packaging operation—filling, sealing, storing, handling and distribution. The most common packaging materials are metal, glass, wood, paper, cardboard, plastic, cloth, jute and cellophane.


A wide variety of packaging material is used according to the availability, possible shortages, competition, economy, transport worthiness, and shelf life. Packaging involves selection of materials, manufacturing, filling and handling of finished packages.


Consumer problems with packaging:


1. The buyer cannot judge the contents of the package by its mere appearance unless it is transparent.


2. The consumer cannot check the volume of the contents, unless he opens the packet.


3. Packages may be deceptive and contain wrong or misleading information/illustration.


4. Many of the common materials used for packaging are hazardous to human health and pollute the environment.


What is Packaging – Mathematical Tests to Check the Method of Packaging


There are various mechanical tests to check the method of packaging.


They are:

i. Drop test – This test helps to measure the ability of the container to provide protection to its contents and to withstand rough handling.


ii. Vibration test – This test is used to determine the ability of the container to withstand vibration and the protection offered by materials used for interior packing.


iii. Compression test – This test is carried out, generally, on empty containers, to measure the ability of the container to resist external compressive loads applied to faces or applied to diagonally opposite edges or corners.


iv. Inclined impact test – This test helps to study the extent of damage in a way of crushing, breaking, cracking, distortion and shifting during handling, storage and transport which occurs to the container and its contents.


v. Rolling test – This test helps to evaluate the overall strength of the container and the cushioning material provided inside.


vi. Drum test – This test helps to evaluate loaded shipping containers with respect to general overall durability and the protection afforded to the contents against certain hazards of handling and shipment.


Various climatic tests are available to check the effect of various climatic factors on packaging:


i. Rain test – This test is conducted in a simulated rain condition to assess its impact on the test area for two hours.


ii. Sand and dust test – This test evaluates the resistance of a package to the penetration of sand and dust.


iii. Salt spray test – This test evaluates the resistance of a package to corrosion by salt spray and if serves as a general standard for corrosion.


The following points need to be taken into consideration while packaging:


i. Cost of packaging.


ii. Appearance.


iii. Kinds of designs.


iv. Convenience.


v. Reuse.


AIDA Formula:


AIDA formula is applicable in packaging decisions too.


This formula represents the following four basic requirements.


A—Attention, that is, getting the attention of the public.


I—Interest, that is, creating an interest over the product.


D—Desire, that is, and creating desire to purchase the product.


A—Action, that is, compelling the consumers to take action (that is, purchase).


Engineering tests are necessary to know whether the package will withstand handling. Visual tests are done to prove its attractiveness. Dealer tests and consumer tests are also conducted to assure favourable response from these two groups.


In spite of its various advantages, packaging has been subjected to criticisms. One among them is that it adds to cost. It is true that packaging expenses definitely increase the cost. But the benefits derived are sufficient to compensate the increase in the cost.


For example, the medicine which we buy is not consumed at once. Its preservation is very important. Only a good package can render this service.


What is Packaging – Kinds of Materials Used for Packaging


Earthenware – It is an old method of preserving products of liquid nature.


China jars – They are used where protection is required against light and corrosive action.


Wooden boxes – They prevent breakage due to rough handling.


Cardboard containers – These are mostly used in specialist goods which are not bulky.


Straw baskets – These are meant for keeping vegetables.


Gunny bags – Gunny bags are popular for packing goods like rice, grains, sugar, cement, white and colour washing materials, etc. Gunny bags cannot give protection to the goods.


Glass – Glass is used to pack liquid products. It affords protection against the action of most of the chemicals.


Tin containers – Tin containers are used to pack liquid and solid products. They are light and strong.


Plastic containers – Plastic containers are gaining extreme popularity. Plastic containers are used to pack liquid and solid products. It involves low cost, good appearance, convenience and ability for reuse.


Paper bags – Paper bags are used to pack products which are in solid form. They are commendable. But their limitations are that the freshness of the product cannot be preserved.


Cellophane paper – Cellophane is a good substitute for paper as packing material. It protects the contents from moisture, but it cannot protect the products against harmful effects of light.


Cushion materials Cushioning is that part of packaging, which protects the article from damage due to shock and vibration.


The main functions of cushioning materials are:


i. Shock protection against vibration.


ii. Protection against abrasion.


iii. Protection of grease-proof and water-proof barriers at the point of contact with solid blocks.


iv. Protection of moisture vapours barriers at points of contact with sharp edges of the article itself.


v. Protection of small projections.


vi. Filling of void space in the container.


What is Packaging – Packaging Cost


The most important aspect of packaging is the packaging cost.


Packaging cost includes the following:


Material cost – It means the cost of the pack and quality control cost.


Storage and handling cost of empty packages – This includes the handling cost of bulky packages, heavy materials of construction, drums, etc.


Packaging operation cost – This includes the cost involved in operations like cleaning the package, product filling, closing, labeling, unitizing, stenciling, handling cylindrical drums, etc.


Storage of filled packages – This includes the cost incurred to shift the goods from one form of packaging to another.


Transportation cost of filled packages – This involves the transportation cost by sea, air, etc.


Loss and damage cost – It is related to the loss and damage during operation, transportation, delivery, etc.


Insurance cost – It varies depending on the vulnerability of package.


Effect of packages on sales – The package that influences the sales.


Obsolescence cost -This cost is incurred when changes in the packaging materials, packages and labels happen.


Package developmental cost – This includes the evaluation cost, pilot test cost, field testing cost, consumer research cost, feedback cost, final trial cost, etc.


What is Packaging – Considerations for Packaging Decision: Package Design, Package Cost, Package Size and Package Test


A decision taken in respect of packaging of a product is known as packaging decision. When a producer wants to take a decision in respect of packaging of a product, he has four main points for considerations to take the decision.


These considerations are as follows:


(1) Package Design:


The very first decision taken by a producer in regard to packaging of a product is to decide the design of packaging.


Decision of design of packaging includes following five decisions –


(i) Which type of material will be used for packaging?


(ii) What will be the design of packaging?


(iii) What colours will be used on packaging?


(iv) What will be the matter printed on packaging?


(v) What will be the brand name and trade mark on packaging?


In addition to the decision on above questions, the design of packaging is determined keeping in view the convenience of consumers and middlemen. The design of packaging must be such that it may facilitate the activities of storage, transportation, and distribution. Other factors affecting the decision of design of packaging are — nature of product, cost of packaging, size of packaging, legal restrictions, advertisement, etc.


(2) Package Cost:


While taking any decision on packaging of a product, the cost of package plays an important role. The package must be selected only after considering the cost of package and its effect on the price of product.


(3) Package Size:


Very important decision in respect of packaging is to decide the size of packaging. The size of packaging differs from product to product, producer to producer and time to time. In addition to it, a single product is offered by a single producer to the consumers at a single time in different sizes of packaging. The size of package depends upon the nature of product and the quantity generally purchased by consumers. As different consumers buy a product in different sizes, it is advisable that the product must be packed in the packages of different sizes.


(4) Package Test:


When a package is decided for a product, the efforts are made to test it so that it may be assured that the package will meet the requirements of consumers.


There may be four types of test for this purpose:


(i) Technical Test – Technical test is the test carried out with the purpose of testing whether the package design is proper or not for the safety of product?


(ii) Middlemen Test – This test is carried out with the purpose of testing the suitability of package from the point of view of middlemen.


(iii) Consumer Test – Consumer test of package aims at testing the package with a view whether it will be liked by the consumers or not?


(iv) Appealing Test – This test, tests the package whether it looks attractive or not? If a package is approved in all the four tests, it is finally decided and if a test fails at any stage, it is disapproved.


What is Packaging – Policies and Strategies


A company can follow any one of the following policy options in respect of product packaging.


It can make periodic changes in the product package in order to achieve one or more of the following purposes:


(a) It can be the management’s decision to provide more product protection and make it user friendly. For example- a ‘milkmaid’ condensed milk container is very difficult to open. But the same product called “Mithai Mate” from Amul was introduced with an easy to open aluminium container. Similarly, biscuits in gift packs are packed well, all biscuits are packed separately so as to maintain the crispness.


(b) Sometimes, changes in packaging may be introduced to correct defects in the package itself. For example- leakage in containers after opening, difficulty in opening, and wrong use of the containers for packing after the product is over, (like containers being used for storing lubricating oil). Another example – edible oil used to be packed in aluminium containers which were difficult to open. But now edible oil is available in one kg plastic bags or plastic bottles.


(c) Innovations in packing material may also necessitate product package changes. For example- instead of plastic, aluminium or tin, companies are now using eco – friendly packing materials. Some cities like Ooty have banned the use of plastic by imposing a fine of Rs. 200, due to the environmental problem it creates.


(d) Lastly, a package change may be necessitated due to an innovative promotion program. For example- the Cavincare group did an innovative marketing effort for its ‘Chik’ shampoo. According to the Cavincare group’s Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Ranganathan, the key to success was not manufacturing, but marketing and distribution. His innovate marketing strategy in 1980, to return five shampoo sachets and get one Chik shampoo free, had been an instant success.


1. Family Packaging:


This is a type of packaging strategy in which the various packages of the entire product line closely resemble each other or alternatively major features of the various packages in the entire product line closely resemble each other. For example- Arun Ice-cream’s vanilla and butter scotch flavors come in one packet.


The advantage of this strategy is that a new product in an identical package enjoy the same market reputation and acceptance as the others. Another example of family packaging is the different products of “Cadbury” that are available in a single gift packet. This type of packaging also helps to reduce packaging expenditure.


But its disadvantage is that, if the reputation of the older products is bad then the reputation of the new product will also be affected. Similarly, customers may also feel that slow moving items are being pushed along with the fast moving items in a single pack.


2. Re-Use Packaging:


This packaging is a strategy in which marketers offer products in such a package, which may be reused for other purposes, once the product has been exhausted or taken out. For example- Boost, Horlicks, Bournvita, Nescafe, Jams, etc. are sold in glass jars which can late be used for storing things. Similarly, ice-creams like Joy, Kwality or Arun are also sold in plastic containers which can be reused for other purposes.


Re-use packaging stimulates repeated purchases as it offers an additional benefit for the same price.


3. Multiple Packaging:


Multiple packaging is a strategy in which a number of heterogeneous products used by one consumer are placed in a single package. For example- a facial cream, talcum powder, eyeliner, lipstick, mirror, comb etc. are placed in a single package. This helps the company increase sales and promote new items along with existing items. The company once obtains acceptance for good products, new products, slow moving items, etc. will get promoted at the same time.


4. Ecological Packaging:


This type of packaging has evolved due to environmental pollution ecological packaging includes the following:


(a) Avoidance of plastic for packaging.


(b) Use of containers that decompose over a reasonable period of time.


(c) Use of eco-friendly packaging material, and


(d) Use of light weight packaging material.


Written by

942 thoughts on “What You Need To Know About Packaging

  1. [url=https://amoxicillin.media/]cost of augmentin tablets[/url] [url=https://amitriptyline.cfd/]amitriptyline 20 mg[/url] [url=https://clomid.media/]where can you get clomid[/url]

  2. [url=http://zoloft.media/]zoloft prescription price[/url] [url=http://ampicillin.company/]ampicillin medicine[/url] [url=http://ordercialis40mgwithnoprescription.monster/]cialis without prescription[/url] [url=http://accutane.tech/]can i buy accutane over the counter[/url]

  3. [url=http://proscar.cfd/]finasteride 0.1[/url] [url=http://tretinoin.business/]rein a non prescription[/url] [url=http://stromectol.sale/]stromectol online canada[/url] [url=http://buycialis40mgtablets.monster/]cialis tablets generic[/url] [url=http://retina.sbs/]where to get retin a gel[/url] [url=http://ordervaltrex.online/]valtrex 500mg best price[/url] [url=http://genericcialis20lowcost.quest/]buy cialis online india[/url] [url=http://bestcialis5mgonline.monster/]cialis generic drug[/url]

  4. [url=https://robaxin.guru/]robaxin 114[/url] [url=https://modafinil.email/]modafinil singapore online[/url] [url=https://clonidine.shop/]0.5 clonidine[/url] [url=https://ciprofloxacin.site/]ciprofloxacin tablet[/url] [url=https://prozac.cyou/]best generic prozac 2017[/url] [url=https://cialisutabs.quest/]buy tadalafil tablets 20mg[/url]

  5. [url=http://buycialis5mgwithoutprescription.quest/]cialis 30 mg[/url] [url=http://ordercialis5mg.monster/]buy cialis 60mg[/url] [url=http://buycialis10mgpills.quest/]purchase cialis in mexico[/url] [url=http://femaleviagra.life/]buy sildenafil citrate 100mg[/url] [url=http://buyviagra150mg.monster/]where can i get female viagra[/url] [url=http://ventolin.run/]buy albuterol online uk[/url] [url=http://metformin.media/]metformin 397 pill[/url]

  6. [url=https://colchicinetabs.online/]average cost of colchicine[/url] [url=https://zovirax.guru/]acyclovir cream coupon[/url] [url=https://glucophage.digital/]metformin 500mg tablets in india[/url] [url=https://amitriptyline911.com/]60 mg amitriptyline[/url] [url=https://noroxin.monster/]noroxin pill[/url]

  7. [url=http://paxil.sbs/]order generic paxil online[/url] [url=http://bestviagratabsbuyingonline.quest/]viagra usa[/url] [url=http://azithromycin.joburg/]zithromax australia[/url] [url=http://genericviagra100mgwithoutrx.quest/]compare viagra prices[/url] [url=http://viagraonlinetabsonlinepharmacy.monster/]female viagra australia[/url]

  8. [url=https://canadianpharmacy.email/]all in one pharmacy[/url] [url=https://cheapcialistabletsorder.monster/]cialis cheapest online prices[/url] [url=https://ventolin.run/]albuterol prescription drug[/url]

  9. [url=https://genericcialis20online.quest/]cialis generic online[/url] [url=https://amoxicillin.mom/]amoxicillin 500 mg for sale[/url] [url=https://lasix.media/]lasix brand name in india[/url] [url=https://buycialis40mgtablets.monster/]where can i purchase cialis[/url] [url=https://colchicine.live/]500 mcg colchicine[/url] [url=https://clomidtab.online/]buy clomid australia[/url] [url=https://amoxicillin.moscow/]amoxicillin mexico buy[/url] [url=https://tretinoin.business/]retin a online uk[/url]

  10. [url=http://ordercialis40mgwithnoprescription.monster/]cialis 5mg online price[/url] [url=http://albuterol.business/]how to order albuterol tabs without a prescription[/url]

  11. [url=https://bestcialis10norx.monster/]tadalafil price in india[/url] [url=https://cheapviagrapillswithnoprescription.quest/]sildenafil online pharmacy india[/url]

  12. [url=https://amoxicillin.moscow/]augmentin 625 mg in usa[/url] [url=https://orderprednisone.online/]cost of prednisone[/url] [url=https://lasix.hair/]lasix 80 mg tablet[/url] [url=https://ordercialis40tablet.monster/]cialis 60 mg pills[/url] [url=https://clomidtab.online/]cheap clomid pills[/url] [url=https://genericcialis20online.quest/]cialis online usa pharmacy[/url]

  13. [url=http://metformin.ink/]metformin generic cost[/url] [url=http://buyviagratabletprescription.monster/]sildenafil 100mg for sale[/url] [url=http://canadianpharmacy.email/]overseas pharmacy no prescription[/url] [url=http://cheapviagrapillprescription.quest/]viagra 10 mg tablet[/url]

  14. [url=http://buyviagra150mg.monster/]order viagra soft tabs[/url] [url=http://bestcialis20mgnoprescription.quest/]tadalafil 10mg prices in india[/url] [url=http://ordercialis5mg.monster/]brand cialis 20 mg[/url]

  15. [url=https://clonidine.sbs/]clonidine er[/url] [url=https://cialisonlinepillpharmacy.monster/]cialis daily cost in india[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacy.email/]reputable online pharmacy[/url] [url=https://diflucana.online/]where can i buy diflucan online[/url] [url=https://bestviagratabsbuyingonline.quest/]viagra 15 mg[/url] [url=https://ordervardenafil.online/]levitra tablet buy online[/url] [url=https://genericcialismedicinewithnoprescription.quest/]tadalafil tab 10mg[/url] [url=https://azithromycin.joburg/]azithromycin 500mg online[/url]

  16. [url=http://retina.sbs/]buying retin a online in canada[/url] [url=http://amoxicillin.mom/]amoxicillin 500 mg capsules[/url] [url=http://amoxicillin.download/]medicine amoxicillin 500mg[/url] [url=http://hydroxychloroquine.bid/]hydroxychloroquine chloroquine[/url] [url=http://buyviagra100withoutrx.monster/]viagra generic drug[/url] [url=http://ampicillin.company/]ampicillin 500 mg generic[/url] [url=http://vardenafil.mom/]order levitra 20mg[/url]

  17. [url=https://ordercialis40mgcost.monster/]cialis canada pharmacy[/url] [url=https://gabapentin.click/]neurontin brand name[/url] [url=https://buycialis5mgwithoutprescription.quest/]generic cialis in usa[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacy.email/]best european online pharmacy[/url] [url=https://viagratabsshop.monster/]sildenafil 48 tabs 50 mg price[/url]

  18. [url=http://bestcialis10norx.monster/]canadian pharmacy tadalafil 20mg[/url] [url=http://buycialis40mgtablets.monster/]cialis online pharmacy us[/url] [url=http://amoxicillin.makeup/]augmentin cheapest price[/url] [url=http://ordercialis40tablet.monster/]tadalafil for sale online[/url] [url=http://proscar.cfd/]buy proscar online usa[/url] [url=http://abilify.cfd/]abilify tablets[/url]

  19. [url=http://retina.sbs/]buy retin a online no prescription[/url] [url=http://cialis10pills.monster/]cialis 2.5 mg daily[/url] [url=http://amoxicillin.mom/]order amoxicillin online without prescription[/url] [url=http://cheapcialis20mgwithoutprescription.quest/]where to buy cialis online[/url] [url=http://proscar.cfd/]propecia prescription[/url] [url=http://erectafil.xyz/]buy erectafil 5[/url]

  20. [url=http://amoxicillin.moscow/]amoxicillin 200 mg tablet[/url] [url=http://amoxicillin.makeup/]order amoxicillin online usa[/url] [url=http://orderprednisone.online/]cost of prednisone[/url]

  21. [url=http://onlineviagrapillwithnorx.monster/]viagra online best price[/url] [url=http://trazodone.business/]trazodone tablets uk[/url] [url=http://viagratabsshop.monster/]viagra online australia[/url] [url=http://amitriptyline.cfd/]elavil tablet[/url] [url=http://genericviagra100mgwithoutrx.quest/]sildenafil 100 mg[/url] [url=http://cheapviagrapillprescription.quest/]prescription viagra[/url]

  22. [url=http://onlinedrugstore.email/]online pharmacy discount code 2018[/url] [url=http://bestcialis10norx.monster/]cheap discount cialis[/url] [url=http://bestcialistabletbuy.quest/]tadalafil 2.5 mg price[/url] [url=http://lasix.hair/]buy cheap lasix[/url] [url=http://genericcialisbuyonline.quest/]can you buy generic cialis in canada[/url] [url=http://colchicine.live/]colchicine 6 mg cost[/url] [url=http://buyviagra200pill.monster/]order viagra online india[/url]

  23. [url=http://buyviagra200pill.monster/]generic otc viagra[/url] [url=http://abilify.cfd/]abilify generic costs[/url] [url=http://genericcialis10mgnoprescription.monster/]cheap cialis.com[/url] [url=http://cheapviagrapillswithnoprescription.quest/]buy generic viagra no prescription[/url] [url=http://diclofenac.business/]diclofenac otc in usa[/url] [url=http://amoxicillin.mom/]price of augmentin in south africa[/url] [url=http://colchicine.live/]colchicine 500mcg tablets[/url]

  24. [url=http://metformin.ink/]metformin 750 cost[/url] [url=http://kamagra.run/]kamagra oral jelly canada[/url] [url=http://viagratabsshop.monster/]viagra 100mg cost in usa[/url] [url=http://amitriptyline.cfd/]elavil anxiety[/url] [url=http://provigil.today/]order modafinil online uk[/url] [url=http://genericcialismedicinewithnoprescription.quest/]cheap cialis online from india[/url]

  25. [url=https://cheapviagrapillprescription.quest/]viagra over the counter canada[/url] [url=https://canadianpharmacy.email/]thecanadianpharmacy[/url] [url=https://azithromycin.joburg/]where to buy zithromax over the counter[/url] [url=https://cheapcialistabletsorder.monster/]tadalista soft 40[/url] [url=https://metformin.ink/]can i buy metformin over the counter in south africa[/url] [url=https://clomid.run/]how much is clomid prescription[/url] [url=https://biaxintab.online/]biaxin price[/url] [url=https://buycialis5mgwithoutprescription.quest/]cialis 60 mg pills[/url]

  26. [url=https://ordercialis40mgcost.monster/]where can i buy cialis online without a prescription[/url] [url=https://bestcialis20mgnoprescription.quest/]cialis 2018[/url] [url=https://cheapviagrapillprescription.quest/]how to buy viagra online in india[/url] [url=https://trazodone.team/]trazodone usa[/url] [url=https://buyviagratabletprescription.monster/]buy viagra online fast delivery[/url] [url=https://lasix.tattoo/]furosemide 40 mg tablets[/url]

  27. [url=http://ordercialis40mgcost.monster/]tadalafil 10mg from canada[/url] [url=http://paxil.sbs/]paroxetine 30 mg[/url] [url=http://ordervardenafil.online/]buy levitra uk[/url] [url=http://trazodone.team/]trazodone hydrochloride 100mg[/url] [url=http://bestcialismedicationnoprescription.monster/]buy tadalafil online[/url] [url=http://ordercialis5mg.monster/]buy cialis europe[/url] [url=http://azithromycin.joburg/]can i purchase azithromycin over the counter[/url] [url=http://modafinil.ink/]modafinil online pharmacy usa[/url]

  28. [url=http://onlineviagrapillwithnorx.monster/]viagra 2010[/url] [url=http://cheapviagrapillprescription.quest/]discount viagra online[/url] [url=http://bestcialis20mgnoprescription.quest/]cheap cialis overnight[/url] [url=http://cheapcialis20mgpills.quest/]cialis 30 mg[/url] [url=http://viagramtab.monster/]viagra caps[/url]

  29. [url=https://bestcialistabletbuy.quest/]cheap cialis usa[/url] [url=https://proscar.cfd/]propecia online cheap[/url] [url=https://genericcialis20lowcost.quest/]cheap cialis generic canada[/url] [url=https://buyingviagratabs.quest/]viagra cream australia[/url]

  30. [url=https://buyviagra200pill.monster/]viagra 50 mg buy online[/url] [url=https://tretinoin.business/]how to get tretinoin prescription uk[/url] [url=https://amoxicillin.makeup/]buy amoxicillin online no prescription[/url] [url=https://bestcialistabletbuy.quest/]where to buy cialis in usa[/url] [url=https://viagragenericdrugonlinedrugstore.quest/]sildenafil tablets 120mg[/url]

  31. [url=http://amoxicillin.media/]amoxicillin 500 price[/url] [url=http://femaleviagra.life/]viagra canada fast shipping[/url] [url=http://viagragenericpillsforsaleonline.quest/]best online pharmacy uk viagra[/url] [url=http://bestviagratabsbuyingonline.quest/]viagra 50mg price in india[/url]

  32. [url=http://cialisonlinepillpharmacy.monster/]cialis without prescription canada[/url] [url=http://kamagra.run/]buy cheap kamagra oral jelly[/url] [url=http://cheapcialis20mgpills.quest/]buy generic tadalafil 20 mg from india[/url] [url=http://propeciatab.online/]generic propecia 1 mg[/url] [url=http://femaleviagra.life/]viagra 100mg price in australia[/url] [url=http://cheapviagrapillprescription.quest/]generic sildenafil[/url] [url=http://cialistabwithnorx.monster/]best price tadalafil 20 mg[/url] [url=http://trazodone.team/]trazodone 50 mg pill[/url]

  33. [url=http://anafranil.cfd/]anafranil 25mg uk[/url] [url=http://bestcialistabletswithnoprescription.monster/]tadalafil tablet online in india[/url] [url=http://viagracheappillonlinedrugstore.monster/]viagra 50 mg coupon[/url]

  34. [url=http://lisinopril.trade/]lisinopril 40 mg mexico[/url] [url=http://cytotec.sbs/]how to get cytotec in canada[/url] [url=http://retina.monster/]tretinoin gel for sale[/url] [url=http://cialispillforsale.monster/]generic cialis 200mg[/url]

  35. [url=https://azithromycin.wiki/]azithromycin online australia[/url] [url=https://furosemide.agency/]furosemide 20 mg drug[/url] [url=https://clomid.makeup/]buy clomid generic online[/url] [url=https://viagraonlinetabletonlinepharmacy.quest/]cost of generic sildenafil[/url] [url=https://propecia.network/]propecia for sale in usa[/url] [url=https://propecia.tech/]finpecia online india[/url] [url=https://cheapcialis10mgtab.quest/]tadalafil prescription drug prices[/url] [url=https://paxil.wtf/]paxil 20 mg price[/url]

  36. [url=http://vardenafil.autos/]levitra purchase[/url] [url=http://ordercialis40mgbestprice.monster/]discount cialis australia[/url] [url=http://colchicine.company/]colchicine for pseudogout[/url]

  37. [url=https://orderviagra150mgnorx.monster/]viagra cream for sale[/url] [url=https://cialis5withoutrx.quest/]tadalafil 5mg tablets price[/url] [url=https://lexapro.run/]where to buy brand name lexapro[/url] [url=https://buyviagramedicationnorx.monster/]wholesale viagra[/url] [url=https://viagrawtab.quest/]sildenafil citrate tablets[/url] [url=https://valtrex.sbs/]valtrex lowest price[/url] [url=https://orderlasix.online/]furosemide tablets online[/url] [url=https://valacyclovir.life/]valtrex capsules[/url]

  38. [url=https://onlinepharmacy.wiki/]all med pharmacy[/url] [url=https://cheapviagratabsrx.quest/]price of viagra in us[/url] [url=https://bestcialistabletswithnoprescription.monster/]buy tadalafil 5mg online[/url] [url=https://azithromycin.tech/]buy azithromycin no prescription[/url] [url=https://vardenafil.business/]viagra cialis levitra online[/url] [url=https://orderhydroxychloroquine.online/]buy quineprox[/url] [url=https://viagra200tab.monster/]purchase cheap viagra online[/url] [url=https://viagracheappillonlinedrugstore.monster/]canadian online pharmacy generic viagra[/url]

  39. [url=https://augmentin.cfd/]price of amoxil[/url] [url=https://sildallis.com/]singapore sildalis[/url] [url=https://nolvadexgen.com/]tamoxifen no prescription[/url] [url=https://neurontintab.com/]neurontin price india[/url]

  40. [url=http://buyviagramedstore.monster/]buy online viagra usa[/url] [url=http://paxil.wtf/]paxil 20 mg mexico[/url] [url=http://cialistablets.monster/]tadalafil 5mg price canada[/url] [url=http://vardenafil.business/]purchase generic levitra[/url] [url=http://viagra200tab.monster/]where to buy cheap viagra in usa[/url] [url=http://bestviagrabuyonline.quest/]female viagra tablet price[/url] [url=http://ventolin.wtf/]albuterol inhaler cost[/url] [url=http://vardenafil.autos/]where to buy levitra in canada online[/url]

  41. [url=https://viagragenerictabspharmacy.quest/]sildenafil 100mg canada[/url] [url=https://baclofen.sbs/]baclofen 40 mg price[/url] [url=https://orderviagra100tab.monster/]where to buy sildenafil over the counter[/url] [url=https://onlinepharmacy.network/]escrow pharmacy canada[/url] [url=https://viagra200mgwithoutrx.monster/]sildenafil pharmacy costs[/url] [url=https://cialisbestpillsforsale.quest/]where to purchase tadalafil[/url]

  42. [url=http://finasterida.online/]order propecia[/url] [url=http://ventolin.wtf/]albuterol 19 cg[/url] [url=http://orderhydroxychloroquine.online/]plaquenil retinal toxicity[/url] [url=http://cheapviagratabsrx.quest/]where can you buy female viagra[/url] [url=http://colchicine.company/]buy colchicine canada[/url] [url=http://viagraonlinetabletonlinepharmacy.quest/]where to buy viagra over the counter usa[/url]

  43. [url=https://bestcialispillswithoutprescription.monster/]tadalafil capsules 21 mg[/url] [url=https://viagraonlinetabletonlinepharmacy.quest/]where can you get women’s viagra[/url]

  44. [url=http://cheapcialis20withnoprescription.quest/]buy cialis over the counter uk[/url] [url=http://lisinopril.trade/]lisinopril 20 mg price without prescription[/url] [url=http://vardenafil.business/]how to get levitra[/url] [url=http://ordertrazodone.online/]trazodone brand name in india[/url] [url=http://onlinepharmacy.wiki/]canadian pharmacy cialis 20mg[/url] [url=http://diflucan.click/]diflucan mexico[/url] [url=http://ventolin.wtf/]otc albuterol[/url]

  45. You actually stated it very well!
    online medicine to buy [url=https://canadianonlinepharmacybase.com]canada pharmaceutical online ordering[/url] canadian online pharmacy reviews

  46. [url=https://valacyclovir.life/]valtrex 500mg[/url] [url=https://trazodone.ink/]trazodone 0.5 mg[/url] [url=https://orderivermectin.online/]ivermectin 3mg dose[/url]

  47. [url=http://retina.monster/]tretinoin cream where to buy online[/url] [url=http://accutane.africa/]accutane price[/url] [url=http://bestviagra100mglowcost.quest/]viagra prescriptions[/url]

  48. You actually explained that well!
    how to write college admission essay [url=https://essaywriting4you.com]https://essaywriting4you.com/[/url] writing help for students

  49. [url=http://paxil.wtf/]how to get paxil[/url] [url=http://cheapcialis10mgtab.quest/]where can you buy cialis[/url] [url=http://viagraonlinetabletonlinepharmacy.quest/]best over the counter viagra 2017[/url] [url=http://orderhydroxychloroquine.online/]quineprox 500 mg[/url]

  50. [url=https://abilify.works/]abilify without a prescription[/url] [url=https://prednisolone.guru/]cheap prednisolne[/url] [url=https://dutasteride.store/]avodart 5 mg price[/url] [url=https://elimiteacticin.quest/]elimite drug[/url] [url=https://tamoxifen.guru/]nolvadex 10[/url] [url=https://colchicinetabs.online/]probenecid colchicine tabs[/url] [url=https://zovirax.guru/]can i buy acyclovir over the counter in south africa[/url]

  51. [url=https://buyviagramedicationnorx.monster/]canadian pharmacy prescription viagra[/url] [url=https://pharmacyonline.sbs/]canadianpharmacymeds[/url] [url=https://valacyclovir.life/]valtrex prescription price[/url]

  52. Cheers! Numerous advice!
    write my essay services [url=https://dissertationwritingtops.com]professional essay writing services[/url] online writing help for college students

  53. [url=https://bestviagrabuyonline.quest/]generic viagra online from india[/url] [url=https://orderhydroxychloroquine.online/]hydroxychloroquine 300[/url] [url=https://buybestviagratabletsonline.quest/]online viagra india[/url] [url=https://colchicine.company/]colchicine 1mg canada[/url]

  54. [url=http://buyingcheapviagrapillsonline.quest/]sildenafil citrate vs viagra[/url] [url=http://genericcialis5mgwithoutrx.monster/]cheap cialis soft[/url] [url=http://viagra200mgwithoutrx.monster/]best viagra brand in canada[/url] [url=http://orderviagra100tab.monster/]sildenafil 50 mg tablet cost[/url]

  55. [url=https://colchicine.company/]colchicine 0.6 mg tablet[/url] [url=https://orderamoxicillin.online/]how to get amoxicillin without prescription[/url] [url=https://bestcialispillswithoutprescription.monster/]generic cialis compare prices[/url] [url=https://vardenafil.business/]levitra 10mg canada[/url] [url=https://ivermectin.hair/]ivermectin 5ml[/url]

  56. [url=http://tizanidine.company/]tizanidine 2 mg tabs[/url] [url=http://lasixfurosemide.online/]buy lasix online with mastercard[/url] [url=http://provigil.monster/]how to buy modafinil in australia[/url] [url=http://azithromycin.pics/]azithromycin generic[/url] [url=http://cialisbestpillsforsale.quest/]how much is tadalafil[/url]

  57. [url=https://trazodone.ink/]desyrel 100 mg tab[/url] [url=https://tadalafil.sbs/]cialis daily for sale[/url] [url=https://orderlasix.online/]furosemide medication[/url] [url=https://orderlisinopril.online/]zestoretic drug[/url] [url=https://ordercialis40noprescription.quest/]buy cialis daily[/url] [url=https://viagragenerictabspharmacy.quest/]viagra free delivery[/url] [url=https://cialistabsshop.quest/]tadalafil best brand[/url] [url=https://lisinoprila.online/]lisinopril 3.5 mg[/url]

  58. [url=http://furosemide.agency/]buy laxis with mastercard[/url] [url=http://azithromycin.wiki/]order azithromycin 500mg[/url] [url=http://orderhydroxychloroquine.online/]cheapest brand plaquenil[/url] [url=http://paxil.wtf/]paxil ocd[/url] [url=http://ordertrazodone.online/]trazodone cost[/url]

  59. [url=https://vardenafil.business/]levitra soft tabs[/url] [url=https://buybestviagratabletsonline.quest/]viagra tablet 25 mg[/url] [url=https://clomid.makeup/]clomid online purchase[/url] [url=https://buyviagramedstore.monster/]where can i buy sildenafil online safely[/url]

  60. [url=https://acyclovir.sale/]buy acyclovir cheap[/url] [url=https://lisinoprila.online/]lisinopril 20 25 mg[/url] [url=https://trazodone.xyz/]trazodone hydrochloride 100 mg[/url] [url=https://tretinoincream.online/]can i buy retin a over the counter in australia[/url] [url=https://lasixfurosemide.online/]lasix price india[/url] [url=https://viagragenerictabspharmacy.quest/]viagra mastercard[/url]

  61. Kudos! Fantastic stuff.
    how to write a persuasive argument essay [url=https://homeworkcourseworkhelps.com]how to write a college essay about yourself[/url] help me write my personal statement

  62. Wonderful data, Many thanks!
    canadian pharmacy without prescription [url=https://canadianpharmacyonlinedb.com]most reliable canadian pharmacies[/url] online medicine order discount

  63. [url=http://bestviagra100mglowcost.quest/]order generic viagra online canada[/url] [url=http://furosemide.agency/]buy lasix online cheap[/url] [url=http://lisinopril.trade/]lisinopril online usa[/url] [url=http://cheapviagratabsrx.quest/]viagra europe pharmacy[/url]

  64. You actually revealed this really well.
    how to write a funny essay [url=https://service-essay.com]https://service-essay.com/[/url] best custom essay writing service

  65. [url=http://cheapcialis5cost.quest/]canadian cialis online[/url] [url=http://viagrawpill.com/]cheap viagra online without prescription[/url] [url=http://onlinepharmacy.network/]online pharmacy without prescription[/url] [url=http://baclofen.sbs/]baclofen uk[/url] [url=http://xenical.monster/]xenical roche[/url]

  66. [url=http://prednisolone.sbs/]prednisolone to buy[/url] [url=http://diflucan.click/]diflucan buy online usa[/url] [url=http://orderamoxicillin.online/]amoxicillin 400 mg[/url] [url=http://bestcialispillswithoutprescription.monster/]10 mg tadalafil tablets[/url]

  67. [url=https://bestcialistabletswithnoprescription.monster/]generic cialis free shipping[/url] [url=https://ordercialis40mgbestprice.monster/]cialis purchase online uk[/url]

  68. [url=https://xenical.monster/]how to get xenical prescription[/url] [url=https://provigil.monster/]provigil 200 mg[/url] [url=https://cialisbestpillsforsale.quest/]discount generic cialis online[/url] [url=https://tretinoin.best/]tretinoin 1 cream price[/url]

  69. [url=https://trazodone.xyz/]trazodone purchase online[/url] [url=https://viagragenerictabspharmacy.quest/]generic sildenafil citrate 100mg[/url] [url=https://trazodone.ink/]trazodone medicine[/url] [url=https://orderviagra150mgnorx.monster/]canada brand viagra[/url] [url=https://azithromycin.pics/]zithromax 250 mg cost[/url] [url=https://cialis5withoutrx.quest/]cialis soft 20 mg[/url] [url=https://ordercialis40noprescription.quest/]where can i buy cialis online usa[/url]

  70. [url=http://buyingcheapviagrapillsonline.quest/]viagra capsule price[/url] [url=http://cialisbestpillsforsale.quest/]cialis 20mg discount[/url] [url=http://onlineviagra50mgwithoutrx.monster/]canadian viagra coupon[/url]

  71. [url=https://buspar.shop/]buspar 5 mg pill[/url] [url=https://albuterol.email/]can you buy ventolin over the counter uk[/url] [url=https://inderal.shop/]how much is propranolol 80mg[/url] [url=https://clomid.best/]clomid pills buy[/url] [url=https://fluoxetine.boutique/]how much is prozac 20[/url]

  72. Reliable stuff. Appreciate it!
    college admission essays [url=https://essaypromaster.com]college compare and contrast essay[/url] professional resume writing services

  73. With thanks! An abundance of content!
    canadian online pharmacies prescription drugs [url=https://canadapharmacies-24h.com]non prescription online pharmacy reviews[/url] londondrugs

  74. [url=http://onlinepharmacy.network/]reliable rx pharmacy[/url] [url=http://amoxicillin.tech/]purchase amoxicillin online without prescription[/url] [url=http://trazodone.xyz/]trazodone 50mg capsules[/url] [url=http://provigil.monster/]buy modafinil online with paypal[/url] [url=http://viagrawtab.quest/]purchase viagra in uk[/url] [url=http://cialis5withoutrx.quest/]cialis purchase online[/url] [url=http://cheapviagra200mgprice.quest/]how to get female viagra pill[/url]

  75. [url=https://ordercialis40mgbestprice.monster/]buy real cialis cheap[/url] [url=https://buybestviagratabletsonline.quest/]genuine viagra online usa[/url] [url=https://cheapviagratabsrx.quest/]viagra brand name in india[/url] [url=https://viagraonlinemedicationdrugstore.monster/]prescription viagra cheap[/url] [url=https://viagra200tab.monster/]buying viagra from canada[/url]

  76. [url=http://bestviagra100mglowcost.quest/]how to buy over the counter viagra[/url] [url=http://viagraonlinemedicationdrugstore.monster/]buy generic viagra online usa[/url] [url=http://viagra200tab.monster/]how to buy viagra online without prescription[/url] [url=http://bestviagrabuyonline.quest/]over the counter viagra usa[/url] [url=http://cytotec.sbs/]misoprostol gel[/url] [url=http://diflucan.click/]buy diflucan online uk[/url] [url=http://ampicillin.agency/]ampicillin order[/url] [url=http://onlineviagra200pills.quest/]viagra tablet purchase online[/url]

  77. [url=https://amoxicillin.ink/]amoxicillin canadian pharmacy[/url] [url=https://lexapro.run/]lexapro online india[/url] [url=https://tizanidine.company/]tizanidine medicine[/url]

  78. [url=https://xenical.run/]xenical tablets[/url] [url=https://tadalafil.sbs/]how can i get cheap cialis[/url] [url=https://cialisbestpillsforsale.quest/]can you buy tadalafil in mexico[/url] [url=https://lisinoprila.online/]lisinopril discount[/url] [url=https://orderviagra150mgnorx.monster/]viagra 100mg buy online[/url] [url=https://viagragenerictabspharmacy.quest/]viagra online purchase india[/url]

  79. [url=https://orderviagrapillsnoprescription.quest/]viagra sales online[/url] [url=https://stromectol.sbs/]ivermectin tablet 1mg[/url] [url=https://vardenafil.business/]levitra pills price[/url] [url=https://buybestviagratabletsonline.quest/]cheap generic viagra usa[/url] [url=https://diflucan.click/]diflucan uk online[/url] [url=https://propecia.network/]where to buy generic propecia online[/url] [url=https://retina.monster/]tretinoin drugstore[/url]

  80. Thanks a lot, Loads of advice.
    compare and contrast high school and college essay [url=https://flowleadsua.com]help in essay writing[/url] writing help for kids

  81. [url=https://viagrawpill.com/]sildenafil 25[/url] [url=https://cafergot.site/]cafergot[/url] [url=https://orderlisinopril.online/]buy lisinopril 20 mg online[/url] [url=https://genericcialis5mgwithoutrx.monster/]generic cialis soft tab[/url] [url=https://provigil.monster/]where can i buy provigil online[/url] [url=https://viagrawtab.quest/]generic viagra online canadian[/url] [url=https://buyviagramedicationnorx.monster/]viagra drugstore[/url] [url=https://retinatretinoin.online/]best tretinoin cream brand[/url]

  82. [url=http://trazodone.xyz/]trazodone 300 mg[/url] [url=http://baclofen.sbs/]baclofen cheap[/url] [url=http://synthroid.site/]synthroid 75 mg price[/url] [url=http://acyclovir.sale/]buy acyclovir cream generic[/url] [url=http://viagragenerictabspharmacy.quest/]viagra 100 mg price[/url]

  83. [url=http://vardenafil.business/]compare price for levitra[/url] [url=http://viagra200tab.monster/]how to order viagra in canada[/url] [url=http://bestcialispillswithoutprescription.monster/]cialis prices in mexico[/url]

  84. [url=https://orderaugmentin.online/]amoxicillin brand name uk[/url] [url=https://viagragenerictabspharmacy.quest/]buy real viagra online uk[/url] [url=https://trazodone.ink/]buy trazodone without prescription[/url] [url=https://cialisbestpillsforsale.quest/]canadian price for cialis[/url] [url=https://cheapviagra200mgprice.quest/]buying viagra in canada[/url] [url=https://tizanidine.company/]over the counter tizanidine[/url] [url=https://valtrex.sbs/]valtrex order online[/url] [url=https://buyviagramedicationnorx.monster/]viagra soft buy[/url]

  85. [url=https://vardenafil.business/]generic levitra 2017[/url] [url=https://viagra200tab.monster/]viagra canadian pharmacy paypal[/url] [url=https://buybestviagratabletsonline.quest/]viagra price canada[/url] [url=https://ordertrazodone.online/]trazodone 200[/url]

  86. [url=http://viagrawtab.quest/]how to purchase viagra[/url] [url=http://trazodone.ink/]trazodone[/url] [url=http://bestviagra50price.quest/]20 mg generic viagra[/url]

  87. [url=https://tadalafil.sbs/]cialis online 5 mg[/url] [url=https://amoxicillin.tech/]amoxicillin 100 mg[/url] [url=https://retinatretinoin.online/]buy tretinoin 0.1[/url] [url=https://lisinoprila.online/]buy lisinopril[/url] [url=https://valtrex.sbs/]valtrex medication online[/url] [url=https://onlineviagratabletswithoutprescription.quest/]where can i get viagra over the counter[/url] [url=https://buycialis5tablet.quest/]no prescription cheap cialis[/url]

  88. [url=https://stromectol.sbs/]ivermectin in india[/url] [url=https://bestcialistabletswithnoprescription.monster/]cialis tabs[/url] [url=https://azithromycin.tech/]azithromycin 500mg for sale[/url]

  89. [url=https://finasterida.online/]finasteride cream[/url] [url=https://viagracheappillonlinedrugstore.monster/]how can i get sildenafil prescription online[/url] [url=https://genericviagratabwithnoprescription.quest/]best viagra coupon[/url] [url=https://bestcialistabletswithnoprescription.monster/]cialis coupon[/url] [url=https://sildenafiltab.online/]how to order viagra[/url] [url=https://cheapcialis20withnoprescription.quest/]buy generic cialis canadian pharmacy[/url] [url=https://onlineviagra50mgtablets.quest/]viagra generic over the counter[/url]

  90. [url=https://cialis5withoutrx.quest/]tadalafil citrate[/url] [url=https://trazodone.xyz/]trazodone price uk[/url] [url=https://onlinepharmacy.network/]reliable canadian pharmacy[/url] [url=https://orderlasix.online/]200 mg lasix[/url] [url=https://buycialis5tablet.quest/]tadalafil tablets 2.5 mg[/url] [url=https://buyingcheapviagrapillsonline.quest/]viagra 50mg uk[/url] [url=https://acyclovir.sale/]acyclovir tablet singapore[/url] [url=https://cheapviagra200mgprice.quest/]buy viagra gel[/url]

  91. [url=https://valtrex.shop/]valtrex prices[/url] [url=https://albuterol.digital/]ventolin 2mg tab[/url] [url=https://diclofenac.store/]voltaren cheap[/url] [url=https://colchicine.digital/]buy colchicine 500 mg[/url] [url=https://pentoxifyllinetrental.monster/]trental 400mg online india[/url]

  92. [url=http://cheapviagra50mgtablet.quest/]price for viagra 100mg[/url] [url=http://ampicillin.agency/]ampicillin 2000 mg[/url] [url=http://orderhydroxychloroquine.online/]plaquenil cost without insurance[/url]

  93. [url=http://orderfinasteride.online/]propecia 25[/url] [url=http://amoxicillin.tech/]augmentin 875 mg[/url] [url=http://genericcialis5mgwithoutrx.monster/]where can i buy real cialis online[/url] [url=http://buyviagramedicationnorx.monster/]viagra 100mg tablet buy online[/url] [url=http://tizanidine.company/]zanaflex cost[/url] [url=http://tadalafil.sbs/]generic female cialis[/url] [url=http://orderviagra150mgnorx.monster/]viagra for sale mexico[/url] [url=http://isotretinoin.cfd/]accutane online cheap[/url]

  94. You revealed that exceptionally well!
    bad college application essays [url=https://quality-essays.com]how to write a narrative essay about yourself[/url] write my paragraph for me

  95. [url=http://bestviagra100mglowcost.quest/]sildenafil 100mg price[/url] [url=http://onlineviagra50mgtablets.quest/]viagra for women sale[/url] [url=http://azithromycin.wiki/]zithromax 250[/url] [url=http://stromectol.sbs/]stromectol ivermectin[/url] [url=http://cheapcialis20withnoprescription.quest/]cialis daily cheap[/url] [url=http://cytotec.sbs/]buy misoprostol online canada[/url] [url=http://ordertrazodone.online/]trazodone 400 mg[/url] [url=http://anafranil.cfd/]anafranil medication[/url]

  96. [url=https://azithromycin.wiki/]medicine zithromax[/url] [url=https://ampicillin.agency/]ampicillin capsules price[/url] [url=https://vardenafil.autos/]levitra super force[/url] [url=https://diflucan.click/]over the counter diflucan pill[/url] [url=https://buybestviagratabletsonline.quest/]viagra in india cost[/url] [url=https://retina.monster/]tretinoin cream online australia[/url] [url=https://ivermectin.hair/]ivermectin antiviral[/url]